- Tribal and religious strife, illegitimate rulers, and wars that exacerbate human suffering. Also, examples of reconciliation and Africans beginning to help Africans
- Rwanda, Burundi, Congo
- South Africa–progress of post-apartheid society
- Kenya–why the ethnic/political strife of 2008?
- Ghana–seems to work without (or with much less) ethnic strife–why?
- Repressive governments, theocracy, and embittered conflict between Israel and Palestinians.
- Religious, ethnic, language, and racial conflicts in emerging countries and in response to immigration in established countries. Also, examples of reconciliation as in Northern Ireland.
- Turkey and Kurds
- Cyprus: Turks and Greeks
- Culture wars, increased linking of religion to government policy, immigration issues, and legacy of racism and increase in identity politics.
- Government sponsored suppression of religion, long-standing religious and ethnic disputes.