• Tribal and religious strife, illegitimate rulers, and wars that exacerbate human suffering. Also, examples of reconciliation and Africans beginning to help Africans
  • Rwanda, Burundi, Congo
  • South Africa–progress of post-apartheid society
  • Kenya–why the ethnic/political strife of 2008?
  • Ghana–seems to work without (or with much less) ethnic strife–why?

Middle East

  • Repressive governments, theocracy, and embittered conflict between Israel and Palestinians.


  • Religious, ethnic, language, and racial conflicts in emerging countries and in response to immigration in established countries. Also, examples of reconciliation as in Northern Ireland.
  • Bosnia
  • Denmark
  • Belgium
  • France
  • Germany
  • Turkey and Kurds
  • Cyprus: Turks and Greeks

United States

  • Culture wars, increased linking of religion to government policy, immigration issues, and legacy of racism and increase in identity politics.


  • Government sponsored suppression of religion, long-standing religious and ethnic disputes.

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